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The Origin Of Ice Hockey

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The Origin Of Ice Hockey Video

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The Origin Of Ice Hockey Video

NHL/How EVERY Team Got Its Name And Identity (Part 1)

Hockey, like many sports, evolved over centuries and was influenced by several games, pastimes, groups and individuals from various countries.

While many Canadian communities have long and rich histories involving the sport, and have undoubtedly contributed to the game's evolution, it is important to rely on documented facts when considering claims on the birthplace of the game.

Many activities that could be considered as precursors to modern hockey have been played on ice under a variety of names; Hockey, Hurley, Hurling, Bandy, Shinty and Shinny, to name a few.

The following references were compiled By Carl Giden and Patrick Houda of Sweden, co-authors of On the Origin of Hockey with Jean-Patrice Martel, and may be of interest to anyone pondering the validity of a birthplace claim.

The Aberdeen Journal of February 9, , reported on an event that had occurred four days earlier in Paisley, a small town near Glasgow, Scotland.

Sadly, the two boys could not be revived. Shinty is a different spelling for "shinny", which most people will recognize as very similar to hockey, like hurly.

The painting depicts two boys wearing skates apparently preparing to play a game of hockey, judging from the stick and the puck not a ball, rather a bung used to plug beer barrels.

The scene was clearly captured at the tip of Isleworth Ait, an island in the Thames, judging from the presence of the Kew Observatory's obelisk in the background.

Though printed on September 1, , it is believed to depict a scene captured in December , as that month included a bitterly cold spell around Christmas, with the temperature in London on Christmas Eve noted as degrees Celcius.

Sachs, and included the following passage:. A couple of miles from where I am writing I found a small print of a youth on the ice on skates, with a hockey stick in the hand, and a bung lying on the ice at his feet.

This print is more than a hundred years old, which shows that our great-great-grandfathers knew how to enjoy themselves in the winter quite as well as we do.

The period covered is between the years of and It contains the following:. Admiral Charles Stewart provided, for the author, an anecdote dating from the time that he and Decatur attended the Episcopal Academy, in Philadelphia, in the late s:.

Journalist and historian George Penny published in his major work, Traditions of Perth. Perth is a Scottish town about 60 km north of Edinburgh.

The book consists chiefly of the personal observations of the writer and the accounts related to him by his father, during a period in which neither local paper nor magazine existed to chronicle events.

Considering the year in which the first newspaper appeared in Perth, the possible range of dates for the various anecdotes contained in the book is anywhere between and This game was also played on the ice by large parties, particularly by skaiters, when there was usually a keen contest.

John O'Rourke was published in It contains passages from Irish newspapers from Parker had a sheep roast whole on the ice, with which he regaled the company who had assembled to witness the hurling match' The second one is from the Dublin Evening Post of Jan.

It may or may not be referring to the same event:. A Scottish text, written in the early 17th century, shows that shinty was played on ice almost years before the earliest Canadian birthplace claim.

Historian and divine theologian David Calderwood wrote The Historie of the Kirk of Scotland , first published in A passage in the manuscript tells about the "Great Frost" in the winter of and includes the following here translated into modern English :.

Martin's Day, November 11] till the 20th of February. The sea froze so far as it ebbed, and sundry went into ships upon ice and played at the chamiare a mile within the sea-mark.

The word "chamiare" or "chamie" is another word for "shinty", as per the Scottish National Dictionary, available on-line. In the spring of , members of the Hockey Origins Research Group HORG released the book "On the Origin of Hockey", which is a presentation of known facts about the origins of hockey, based on tens of thousands of words, from hundreds of sources, written about hockey played on the ice with skates.

The foreground of this painting shows a wintry scene in which three hunters are returning from an expedition accompanied by their dogs.

In the background, figures skate and play games on the ice. Wikimedia Commons. Some people have mistaken the game depicted here as an early version of ice hockey.

Cropped from original image. Previous Next. That year, the British royal family returned from exile in the Netherlands, bringing a passion for skating back with them.

Before long, bandy was adapted for playing with ice skates. According to historian Charles Goodman Tebbutt, people were probably playing bandy on ice since the mids in the Fens.

But it was not until the great frost of —14 that tradition gives place to certainty. He also spoke to Richard Brown, who had been the umpire of a game between Willingham and Bluntisham-cum-Earith in Bandy was also played on ice in other parts of England at the time.

In February , for example, the Chester Chronicle in Chester, England, reported that people were playing bandy on the frozen Dee River.

But what about hockey itself? Whether played on the ground or on ice, the games of hurling, shinny and bandy were usually played with a hard wooden ball, which caused frequent injuries to shins.

However, around the midth century, at least in England, balls were starting to be replaced by cork-bungs barrel plugs.

An engraving printed by Joseph Le Petit in London in shows such a bung being used for ice hockey.

This engraving, which was published by Joseph Le Petit Jr. Throughout much of the 19th century, hockey and bandy were considered interchangeable terms.

However, hockey appears to have become the more popular term, particularly in the London area. In the s and early s, field hockey was played at most of the important schools in the London area, including Eton and Harrow the first set of rules for field hockey were likely written at Harrow in Hockey thus became a common activity, on ground and occasionally on ice, and its popularity spread out of London.

Several instances of ice hockey are documented in England in the 19th century. In , naturalist Charles Darwin mentioned hockey in a letter to his son, William Erasmus, who was then away at school.

Hockey was also popular amongst the royal family. As the 19th century progressed, and the game of hockey became more popular in England, it also became increasingly organized.

Yet in most winters it was possible, at least for a few days, to play hockey or bandy on ice. The activity was very popular in some areas, with newspapers reporting the game results as early as — on Saturday, 5 February of that year, the Huntingdon Bedford and Peterborough Gazette reported a bandy game between Colne and Bluntisham, which the former team won.

Then, on 3 February , teams from Swavesey and Over met on Mare Fen for a game of bandy as well as some skating races.

The exact score is not known, but the local newspaper reported that Swavesey won and listed the names of all the players, eleven per side.

This indicates a high level of formality in the organization of the game in England by at least the early s.

By that time, at least two books had been published containing instructions for playing bandy or hockey — the two terms being considered interchangeable at the time — and indicating that it could be played on ice with skates.

As in the earlier edition, hockey was still enthusiastically promoted as a winter sport to be practiced with ice skates. These books clearly predate the rules published by the Montreal Gazette in and should therefore be considered the first sets of rules for ice hockey.

The HA oversaw the practice of field hockey , but its rules were also used in England for ice hockey until , when the National Skating Association published its own set.

In short, by , people were playing ice hockey in England and had developed rules for playing the game. This was part of a long development of the sport in the British Isles, which included games of shinty being played on ice as early as There is clear evidence that the game was being played in Canada in the 19th century, even prior to the famous game played in Montreal on 3 March This is hardly surprising, given that settlers from Great Britain or Ireland would have brought with them their folk games, as would members of the British army and navy who were stationed in Canada.

The claim has been made that Windsor , Nova Scotia , was the birthplace of ice hockey. The passage does not, however, provide much detail as to how the game was played or whether skates were used.

Some of the earliest evidence for ice hockey in Canada was recorded by British officers, who brought the sport with them. In , for example, researchers discovered two letters written by Sir John Franklin in , during one of his attempts to find the Northwest Passage.

This has led some to argue that Deline, in the Northwest Territories , was the birthplace of hockey in Canada. It is unlikely, therefore, that this was the first game of ice hockey.

There is also evidence that in , games of ice hockey were played by British soldiers on Chippewa Creek in the Niagara region although this evidence only came to light in Hockey was also played in Kingston , Ontario, in Sir Arthur Freeling, then a first lieutenant stationed in Kingston, organized games for his men and wrote about them in his diary.

Like Franklin and Levinge, Freeling was a British officer who would have learned the game in his home country.

Freeling was recalled to England in , and it would be a few decades before ice hockey was played again in Kingston. Despite this, Kingston was long held to be the birthplace of ice hockey, owing in large part to efforts by Captain James T.

The decision was later rescinded, and the Hall opened in Toronto. While few reports of specific games exist, there is also no doubt that ice hockey was played on a regular basis in Halifax and Dartmouth , Nova Scotia, prior to It is therefore clear that games resembling ice hockey were played in Canada in the 19th century, likely brought to the country by settlers or military personnel from the British Isles.

On that date, the Montreal Gazette made the following announcement:. Good fun may be expected, as some of the players are reputed to be exceedingly expert at the game.

Some fears have been expressed on the part of intending spectators that accidents were likely to occur through the ball flying about in too lively a manner, to the imminent danger of lookers on, but we understand that the game will be played with a flat circular piece of wood, thus preventing all danger of its leaving the surface of the ice.

Subscribers will be admitted on presentation of their tickets. The game, played between two teams of nine players, ended in a 2—1 win for the team captained by James George Aylwin Creighton originally from Nova Scotia over the team captained by Charles Edward Torrance.

He is credited with organizing the first recorded indoor ice hockey match at Montreal, Quebec, Canada in He helped popularize the sport in Montreal and later in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada after he moved to Ottawa in where he served for 48 years as the Law Clerk to the Canadian Senate.

Photo dated March in Ottawa, Ontario. In , the IIHF officially recognized this as the first game of organized ice hockey. Was this truly the first organized ice hockey game?

It is likely the rules originated with members of the local British garrison, who would have been using English hockey rules. However, this ignores the use of bungs in England that began in the midth century.

Newspaper reports include a list of all the players but did not provide the identity of the goal scorers, the duration of the game, or whether there was a referee or umpire, or goalies.

The Origin Of Ice Hockey - Inhaltsverzeichnis

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